Chapter 1

Global Warming, Ozone Holes, and Magnetic Poles

“An Investigation Reexamining Brewer-Dobson Ozone Theory to Uncover the Atmospheric Role of Paramagnetic Oxygen in Recent Extreme Weather Patterns and Global Climate Change” by Harry Todd

AUTHOR’S NOTE: Carbon dioxide, methane, CFCs, HFCs, and nitrogen compounds are the main focus of international attempts to lessen the chemical effects of anthropogenic global warming caused by greenhouse gas pollution.  The efforts of the Paris Agreement are very important if we are to slow down that process.  We must recognize however, that non-anthropogenic geophysical forcing factors also are active in  climate change, and that we have no control over them.  We may need to double our pollution control in order to offset the non-anthropogenic factors.  This paper explores oxygen’s involvement in climate patterns associated with Earth’s wandering magnetic poles.  Using ozone as a tracer, it develops a new rationale for climate modeling.  The conclusions are a radical departure from currently accepted science.

This is a complex paper.  The rationale is difficult to follow, and the graphics need careful study. Each chapter expands for further reading by pressing the green link. The reader is encouraged to reply in the box below each chapter to ask questions, make comments, and initiate a discussion.  The paper has been professionally edited but will not be submitted to a peer-reviewed atmospheric journal.  It is a work in progress.  The original was published by WordPress on October 28, 2015.  It has no political nor economic agenda.


An undiscovered relationship exists between tropospheric oxygen and the wandering magnetic poles of Earth’s core.  All oxygen is paramagnetic, the colder the better.  In the southern hemisphere the Ozone Hole boundary is being held open by the eccentric South Magnetic Pole, and Antarctic sea ice  expands to match that latitude.  In spite of the curtailment of CFCs under the Montreal Protocol, the Ozone Hole has not shrunk in three decades.  In the northern hemisphere rampant carbon dioxide warming is being stirred by elongated jet stream loops melting ancient Arctic sea ice with subtropical air masses.  Comparison of daily satellite maps of total ozone to maps of jet stream velocity show a close physical relationship.  The old standard Brewer-Dobson equatorial ozone migration theory is inadequate for modeling the factors involved in actual documented ozone generation.

A new thesis is proposed for stratospheric ozone formation in situ at higher latitudes.  It is based upon tropospheric transport of paramagnetic oxygen to a lower-altitude polar tropopause.  Data obtained from internet sources show maps of high-latitude ozone conversion associated with polar magnetic force fields and also show detailed cross sections of mid-latitude ozone conversion associated with jet streams.  Tropopause ozone conversion accelerates the jet streams and elongates the Rossby wave loops, exacerbating extreme weather patterns.  The data confirm the thesis.  The paramagnetic process responds to wandering magnetic poles, and new climate change models need to incorporate this rapidly moving global effect.  The process might even explain the cycles of Pleistocene glaciation.

Wandering magnetic poles control cold oxygen which controls ozone conversion which controls jet stream velocity which controls Rossby wave loops which control the weather.  Therefore, wandering magnetic poles control the weather!

Introduction, Traditional Ozone Science

Why would we need yet another ozone paper? Are not the industrialized nations responsible for the chemical degradation of the atmosphere and the rapidly warming global climate? Have we not determined the processes and merely need to control our excesses?  But why has the Ozone Hole not repaired itself after we eliminated hair spray?  And why is the northern hemisphere experiencing such extreme weather patterns?

For traditional background information, a thorough secondary source of stratospheric ozone theory is available on the internet at The Stratospheric Ozone Electronic Textbook [1], compiled by members of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch (Code 916), although paramagnetic oxygen is not addressed.

The original theory of stratospheric ozone generation was published in the Memoirs of the Royal Meteorological Society by mathematician Sydney Chapman in 1930 [2]. Chapman described the reversible conversion of oxygen into ozone by solar ultraviolet radiation, the Chapman Cycle. In 1946 British physicists Alan Brewer and Gordon Dobson [3] devised a model of slow, convective, stratospheric ozone transport from the equator to the poles (Fig 1), explaining why more ozone is found in polar regions than near the equator where more solar radiation occurs.

Brewer-Dobson theory of ozone circulation
Fig 1. Schematic illustration of Brewer-Dobson circulation theory.  This is a model.

With seasonally averaged ozone density by NASA, The Stratospheric Ozone Electronic Textbook, Chapter 6, Section 3, Figure 6.03. Available.

Seventeen years after the Ozone Hole was discovered, NASA Science News reported “Peering into the Ozone Hole” (Fig 2) asking a serious question [5]: “Image of the record-size ozone hole taken by NASA satellites on September 9, 2000. Blue denotes low ozone concentrations and yellow and red denote higher levels of ozone. Notice the ‘croissant’ of high ozone concentrations formed when the Antarctic vortex blocks the southerly migration of ozone formed in the tropics . . . Why are we seeing the worst-ever ozone hole when 13 years of regulation are finally bringing CFC levels under control? . . . Most stratospheric ozone is created in the tropics, because the intensity of the solar radiation that causes formation of ozone is higher nearer the equator. The ozone is then transported by stratospheric air currents to the Arctic and to Antarctica.”  (Italics added.)

ozone hole 2000 ozone croissant
Fig 2. Record ozone hole taken by NASA satellite on September 9, 2000

After 13 years of regulation by the Montreal Protocol, the ozone minimum was larger than ever. NASA still is using Brewer-Dobson theories for ozone modeling. “Ozone Croissant” label was added to the published satellite map. Available.


The influence of traditional Brewer-Dobson theories prevails in that 2000 NASA report and in scientific practice today [1]. Repeating NASA’s question, “Why are we seeing the worst-ever ozone hole when 13 years of regulation are finally bringing CFC levels under control?” Is that question a problem?  It is applicable to 2015 data displaying a similar sized ozone hole.  Could the answer merely be a delay in the results of our remedial efforts?  Or are we overlooking a significant factor?

Click to read Chapter Two…


9 thoughts on “Chapter 1

  1. Hi Harry, I read your first chapter with considerable interest and will read more. I take a strong interest in matters ‘ozone’ and have a different interpretation of the origin of the Antarctic Ozone hole that I describe here:

    For my work I rely heavily on observation of trace gas composition and its evolution as reported here:

    Ozone would increase in concentration all the way to the surface of the planet if it were not for oxides of nitrogen generated largely in soils. This dictates that the tropopause is higher in the northern hemisphere in summer.

    The very particular nature of the circulation of the air above Antarctica dictates that an ozone hole will always occur during the final warming of the stratosphere between August and December. That circulation is a result of the geography of the Southern Hemisphere with large amounts of ocean and the continent of Antarctica located south of 65° of latitude. It gives rise to the circumpolar trough in surface pressure that surrounds the continent. The evolution of the latter, intimately associated with the evolution of the ozone content of the air between 400 hPa and 50 hPa, is associated with what is described as the Antarctic Oscillation, that I argue is the most influential mode of natural climate change globally.

    The ozone hole that forms in the northern hemisphere, due also to ingress of troposphere NOx rich air into zones where it is normally not found, is brief due to the geography of the distribution of land and sea.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Thanks for your reply! I’m impressed with your thoroughness and interest in the subject. When I get time, I plan to study your links to see how we might interact. Hope you find time to finish my other chapters to see where I took the study. See you later!


      1. Hi Harry, I have been following Erl for some time now. I am really keen to see if both your work and Erl’s work can exist in mutual harmony. As an industrial chemist by trade, I have an interest in reading the latest knowledge linking weather and climate. So far, I find the CO2 meme has larger holes in it than the ozone hole itself- a lot of that is thanks to observations mapped out by Erl. NASA and the UN-IPCC seem to have political agendas rather than the science. My main focus at present is how Erl shows the tropospheric warming in the SH during winter is greatest. This needs resolving because there is no UV to generate ozone, hence Erl surmises it comes via IR from earth….this is where I struggle. Another aspect is that UV is about 50 times more intense than IR (hence why we get sunburnt in minutes), so bandwidth is not as important as the frequency for heating. But One step at a time. Cheers. Macha

        Liked by 1 person

    1. Macha, I will give you an answer and Harry can perhaps provide his own.

      Consider this: Why is the stratosphere warmest in the winter time when the intensity of UV from the sun is at its least?

      UV from the sun is a small part of the totality of energy spectrum emitted by the sun and as such is capable of doing a fraction of the work that can be done by the totality of the whole spectrum of energy from the sun

      The Earth is an independent source of energy by virtue of the fact that it receives energy from the sun (also some emerging from its interior) and must give off an equal (or greater) amount of energy itself or it would continue to heat up.

      The spectrum that the Earth emits has nothing in the ultraviolet spectrum but a lot in the infrared.

      So called greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are capable of acquiring energy in the infrared spectrum and passing it on to other gases. Ozone is one of these. Ozone absorbs strongly at about 9-10um (infrared) and the greater the atmospheric pressure the more efficiently does it transfer that energy to the atmosphere that contains 03. This molecule can be found in the atmosphere from the surface of the planet through to the upper limits of the mesosphere. The mesosphere cools according to its diminishing O3 content with increasing elevation.

      The totality of the energy from all wave lengths that reaches the Earth from the the sun must be re-emitted. A small part of the total of incoming is infrared. The major part of the outgoing is infrared. The energy available for heating the atmosphere via infrared is many times greater than the energy available in the ultraviolet. Add one crucial observations. Most of the ultraviolet is used up in the ionosphere and the lower mesosphere and only a small fraction of the ultraviolet reaches the upper stratosphere. What reaches the upper troposphere is tiny in terms of the energy that it imparts but very influential due to its very short wave length.We measure its intensity via a UV index. Short wave length means that it can penetrate larger molecules like those that make up human skin and O3 itself. The UV index falls away quickly as the sun angle moves away from directly overhead. So, UV is influential in a tiny fraction of the totality of the atmosphere.It has little influence on high latitudes, less in the winter and none at all on the night side.

      It is due to the proliferation of ozone in the winter stratosphere that the air in the stratosphere is warmer in winter than it is in summer.

      In winter, the influence of ozone can be seen in high latitudes as low as 400 hPa.

      The polar atmosphere can not be easily described as either troposphere or stratosphere. These terms are more appropriate in low and mid latitudes.

      When people began sending balloons aloft to measure the temperature of the air in the stratosphere they could avoid the influence of solar radiation that was thought to be affecting the readings given by thermometers by sending the balloons up at night. Hey, what they found was that the stratosphere was as warm in the night time as during the day. What does that tell you about the nature of and source of energy that heats the stratosphere.

      What is the name of the atmospheric molecule that defines and gives rise to ‘the stratosphere’?

      Liked by 1 person

  2. I am so happy to see scientific discourse on my website! Keep it up! This is exactly where I wanted to go with this paper. Maybe we will come up with a solid discovery that fits all the available scientific data.


    1. Hi Harry, Thanks for your reply. The jet streams are indeed intimately associated with differences in the nature of the different parcels of air that merge in high latitudes. The best expression is found in Antarctica because of the strength and continuity of the circumpolar trough in surface pressure that surrounds the Antarctic continent. That trough is in fact a chain of polar cyclones that originate in the region where the troposphere overlaps with the stratosphere.

      Three parcels of air are involved in merging together at the circumpolar trough in winter. The first is air descending from the mesosphere, very cold and virtually devoid of ozone and its only present in winter. Second is air from the mid latitudes that is warm and rich in ozone. Because ozone acquires infrared energy from outgoing radiation from the Earth itself that mid latitude air is warm and is further warmed, or at least tends to be maintained in its warmer condition as it approaches the pole. It is consequently less dense than air from the mesosphere. Third is air from the tropics where the tropopause is very high, so its also ozone poor, as cold as the air from the mesosphere and relatively dense.

      The upshot of the differences in air density that manifest between 400 hPa and 50 hPa is fast displacement of low density air that travels to the top of the atmosphere in a cone that surrounds the very cold dense descending air from the mesosphere. In the process high ozone content air is elevated to 1 hPa. Ascent is most pronounced over warm water like that which is found in the western part of the Pacific in the vicinity of New Zealand. The rate of ascent varies in time with differences in the ozone content of the air. This gives rise to very marked fluctuations in the temperature of the air at the top of the atmosphere. The more the elevation, the greater the fluctuation.

      It appears that ozone production is associated with cosmic ray activity that increases when solar activity is low. There has been a constant increase in cosmic ray activity since the peak of solar cycle 24.

      In high latitudes in winter the speed of the winds in the cone of ascent increases with height. It s very possible that wind speed is partly driven by geomagnetic effects. I have seen papers that relate the speed of the zonal wind in high latitudes to indices of geomagnetic activity that I am sure you are familiar with.

      There is a dichotomy in science. In general, it is thought that heating at the equator drives the atmospheric circulation.In my view its ozone heating at the poles that is important in the acceleration of the zonal wind that begins as the jet stream. Another driver and possible initiator, along with cosmic ray activity is geomagnetic activity as the Earths magnetic field is influenced by the solar wind. So, we have at least three factors of importance in determining polar cyclone and jet stream activity.

      The link to low and mid latitude surface temperature is via the shifts in atmospheric mass from high to low latitudes where sea surface temperature rises with surface pressure. That relationship is strong in the southern hemisphere Surface pressure has increased in low and mid latitudes of the southern hemisphere since the peak of solar cycle 24.

      Shifts in mass from high to lower latitudes are monitored as the Arctic Oscillation Index and the Antarctic Oscillation Index. It has long been known that the AO index is well correlated with indices of geomagnetic activity like the aa index.

      I describe a very good paper on ozone here:

      Have you come across this brilliant site to study the atmsophere?,82.55,410

      You will see polar cyclones with warm cores at the 250 hPa level if you set the display to show air temperature.


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s