Chapter 2

Suddenly on September 25, 2002, a broad accumulation of ozone briefly overpowered that year’s ozone hole. The press called it “a double ozone hole”, focusing upon the holes and not on the croissant. Observe the location of the ozone croissant and that of the South Magnetic Pole marked by an arrow on this daily NASA survey using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, TOMS (Fig 3):

double ozone hole
Fig 3. Double ozone hole on September 25, 2002.

NASA EP/TOMS Total Ozone map, retrieved 2015, available. Arrow symbol has been added at the location of the South Magnetic Pole.

Why is this large ozone croissant piled up on the South Magnetic Pole, briefly crowding out the famous Ozone Hole?  Is it coincidence or causality?  Could there be another factor that we have not considered?  Is it magnetism?

Carefully study and compare the following series of monthly average maps of NASA Goddard Homepage stratospheric column ozone (Fig 4). The seasonal buildups of ozone occur in winter and spring.  Note the locations.

stratospheric column ozone climate change
Fig 4. Monthly average maps of stratospheric column ozone.

Monthly average maps October 2004 through December 2010 of NASA
Goddard Homepage monthly climatology stratospheric column ozone (in Dobson Units at 5 degree lat/long resolution). Note the seasonal maxima in Canada, in eastern Siberia, and between Antarctica and Australia. Retrieved 2015, available.

Now consider the magnetic intensity field map of Earth (Fig 5) which points to magnetic maxima in Canada, Siberia, and Antarctica.  Note the locations and compare to the areas of seasonal ozone accumulations.

magnetic fields map earth
Fig 5. Magnetic field of Earth 1990.

Based on the IGRF 1990 (Blakely) isodynamic map showing total magnetic intensity, contour interval 2,600 nT, displaying major magnetic highs in Canada, Siberia, and Antarctica. Available URL:

On these maps stratospheric ozone accumulations link to areas of maximum magnetic intensity. Could magnetism be the overlooked factor? Consider evidence from the original ozone hole announcement. In the journal Nature, May 1985, based upon ground observations, the British Antarctic Survey announced their discovery of the “Ozone Hole”. NASA had observed a remarkable appearance of the feature on their 1983-84 satellite data. At an August 1985 meeting in Prague, NASA’s Pawan Bhartia presented the following 1983 map (Fig 6):

southern hemisphere ozone hole nasa presentation
Fig 6. Original 1983 southern hemisphere “Ozone Hole” presentation map, label added.

NASA satellite data from October 1, 1983, presented at Prague, August 1985.   Yellow is minimal ozone; dark blue is maximum ozone. Notice the asymmetry.  The magnetic pole label has been added for this paper. Available.

The Antarctic ozone minimum (Fig 7) began in 1983 and appears seasonally to this day:

chart antarctic ozone minimum 1979-1998
Fig 7. Annual Antarctic ozone minimum 1979-1998.

Lowest value of ozone measured by TOMS each year in the ozone hole (NASA). Timing matches the movement of the South Magnetic Pole
off the Antarctic continental shelf in 1983 (Fig 8). Label added, available.


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