The South Magnetic Pole wandered off the continental shelf!
Unheralded by the scientific press, the South Magnetic Pole had wandered off the Antarctic continental shelf in 1983 (Fig 8).
In all these figures, ozone has given the appearance of being attracted to magnetic force fields. But ozone is diamagnetic, slightly repelled by a magnetic force field. A paradox. And the paradox warrants an investigation.
All oxygen is paramagnetic (open this link for demonstration) and at lower temperatures is attracted to magnetic force fields. Liquid oxygen is strongly paramagnetic at lower temperatures consistent with Curie law. The colder, the more magnetic. Yet even at room temperature, the magnetic susceptibility of oxygen gas is +3449 x 10-6cm3/mol , and paramagnetic oxygen instruments routinely measure gaseous oxygen by its attraction to magnetic fields and its sensitivity to temperature . Earth’s magnetic field is weak at 0.25-0.65 gauss , yet it moves tiny compass needles. Earth’s magnetic field is a massively prevailing force, and gaseous oxygen is free to drift toward the magnetic poles and their frigid temperatures.
The planet Jupiter is highly magnetic as evidenced by continual auroras (Fig 8a), but the gaseous hydrogen on its surface is diamagnetic. The belts and bands do not migrate toward the magnetic poles. They remain parallel even on the polar view made by the recent NASA satellite (Fig 8b).
Fig 8a. X-ray auroras observed by the Chandra X-ray Observatory overlaid on a simultaneous optical image from the Hubble Space Telescope. URL http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2007/29mar_bigauroras/
Fig 8b. Polar view of planet Jupiter on July 21, 2016, NASA’s Juno Mission.
On planet Earth jet streams spiral toward the frigid poles as the 21% oxygen gains magnetic susceptibility (Fig 8c).
Fig 8c. Northern hemisphere jet streams at winter solstice December 21, 2015. SFSU California Regional Weather Server. URL available.
Oxygen may move toward the magnetic poles and get partially converted into ozone in situ at high latitudes. Mapping the minor element ozone might show the movement and processes of paramagnetic oxygen which have gone unnoticed by observers in the atmospheric sciences.
Materials and Methods
Primary evidence for this paramagnetic oxygen transport thesis has been taken from the internet in the public domain, daily satellite data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) , the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) , the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) , San Francisco State University’s California Regional Weather Server (CRWS) , and Tropospheric Emission Monitoring Internet Service (TEMIS) . Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is a contribution of the Netherlands’ Agency for Aerospace Programs (NIVR) in collaboration with the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) to the NASA EOS Aura mission . General permission for use of the data has been granted by these institutions. A few of the figures were retrieved from the internet at an earlier date but are no longer readily available. Published data sourced from peer reviewed scientific journals were also used.
The jigsaw sequence of logic and evidence requires detailed examination and close comparison of the data in order to understand the process of paramagnetic oxygen transport to high latitude ozone conversion and how that process is instrumental to global climate change. A major obstacle to working with the published data is the diversity of presentation methods. Mercator vs. polar geography, scale, orientation, and location make perception difficulties that cloud meteorological understanding. The reader is urged to closely examine the location of each pattern in the process.
The process of tropospheric transport of paramagnetic oxygen toward mid-latitude conversion into stratospheric ozone accumulations within jet streams at tropopause breaks and toward high-latitude conversion at low-altitude polar tropopauses over global magnetic maxima.
Beginning with the Global Distribution of Oxygen
Most tropospheric oxygen forms already at higher latitudes and preferentially in the northern hemisphere by chlorophyll as shown on this NASA satellite map (Fig 9):
Examining Daily Stratospheric Ozone Maps
Total ozone column maps made during equinoxes (chosen for balanced comparison) show daily ozone formation at high latitudes at the end of the cold winter seasons in both the northern and the southern hemispheres. On both hemispheres the equatorial bands at equinox have the least ozone formation in spite of their maximum solar radiation. Contrary to the Brewer and Dobson solution, these modern maps do not exhibit signs of poleward migration of stratospheric ozone from the equator. The southern hemisphere ozone (Fig 10) is formed in a band from 30 to 60 degrees south latitude. The northern hemisphere ozone (Fig 11) is formed in a band from 30 to 90 degrees north latitude. The major ozone accumulations were converted from cold, dense paramagnetic oxygen in winter and early spring over global magnetic intensity maxima (Figs 4 & 5).
Tracking the Wandering Magnetic Poles
The South Magnetic Dip Pole (Figs 8 & 12) with its singular high magnetic intensity field (Fig 5) was located in 2015 at an unusually eccentric position near 64.26 degrees south latitude and 136.59 degrees east longitude , coincident with the southern edge of the dynamic polar vortex weather system (Fig 12a&b).
Compare the present location of the South Magnetic Pole to this total ozone map (Fig 12a) showing the ozone hole and the ozone croissant. Note how the maximum sea ice map (Fig 12b) fits the frigid ozone hole. They all are aligned at the latitude of the South Magnetic Pole. Yet ozone is diamagnetic. A paradox? Or is ozone a tracer of a natural process in oxygen?
Fig 12a. This false-color image shows ozone concentrations above Antarctica on October 2, 2015. Credits: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.URL http://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/annual-antarctic-ozone-hole-larger-and-formed-later-in-2015
Fig 12b. Maximum Antarctic sea ice October 6, 2015, NASA.
The North Magnetic Dip Pole (Fig 13) has wandered to a 2015 position near 86.27 degrees north latitude and 159.18 degrees west longitude , close to the North Pole axis of rotation. The northern polar area has a warmer Arctic Ocean surrounded by colder land masses and lacks the strong polar vortex of weather like that around the southern pole which has a cold Antarctic mass surrounded by warmer oceans.
The northern hemisphere exhibits an unusual magnetic force field (Fig 14):
This illustration of magnetic lines of force coincides with the two Mercator-mapped areas of high total intensity in Canada and Siberia (Fig 5). Maus S 2009, Dataset Visualization Developer, NOAA/National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC). Available.
On an OMI total ozone map made during the 2012 equinox period (Fig 15), a major stratospheric ozone accumulation lay directly over the northern magnetic force field (Fig 14). Yet ozone is diamagnetic. Paramagnetic oxygen may be the solution to the paradox.