Chapter 3

The South Magnetic Pole wandered off the continental shelf!

Unheralded by the scientific press, the South Magnetic Pole had wandered off the Antarctic continental shelf in 1983 (Fig 8).

magnetic pole wandered off antarctic continental shelf 1983
Fig 8. Historic track of wandering South Magnetic Pole. Magnetic pole wandered off the Antarctic continental shelf in 1983 into the peripheral polar vortex of extreme weather. NOAA data. 1983 label added. Available URL

In all these figures, ozone has given the appearance of being attracted to magnetic force fields.  But ozone is diamagnetic, slightly repelled by a magnetic force field.  A paradox.  And the paradox warrants an investigation.

All oxygen is paramagnetic (open this link for demonstration) and at lower temperatures is attracted to magnetic force fields.  Liquid oxygen is strongly paramagnetic at lower temperatures consistent with Curie law. The colder, the more magnetic. Yet even at room temperature, the magnetic susceptibility of oxygen gas is +3449 x 10-6cm3/mol [22], and paramagnetic oxygen instruments routinely measure gaseous oxygen by its attraction to magnetic fields and its sensitivity to temperature [6].  Earth’s magnetic field is weak at 0.25-0.65 gauss [7], yet it moves tiny compass needles. Earth’s magnetic field is a massively prevailing force, and gaseous oxygen is free to drift toward the magnetic poles and their frigid temperatures.

The planet Jupiter is highly magnetic as evidenced by continual auroras (Fig 8a), but the gaseous hydrogen on its surface is diamagnetic.  The belts and bands do not migrate toward the magnetic poles.  They remain parallel even on the polar view made by the recent NASA satellite (Fig 8b).

see caption

Fig 8a.  X-ray auroras observed by the Chandra X-ray Observatory overlaid on a simultaneous optical image from the Hubble Space Telescope.  URL 


Fig 8b.   Polar view of planet Jupiter on July 21, 2016, NASA’s Juno Mission.

URL available.

On planet Earth jet streams spiral toward the frigid poles as the 21% oxygen gains magnetic susceptibility (Fig 8c).


Fig 8c.   Northern hemisphere jet streams at winter solstice December 21, 2015.  SFSU California Regional Weather Server.  URL available.

Oxygen may move toward the magnetic poles and get partially converted into ozone in situ at high latitudes.  Mapping the minor element ozone might show the movement and processes of paramagnetic oxygen which have gone unnoticed by observers in the atmospheric sciences.

Materials and Methods
Primary evidence for this paramagnetic oxygen transport thesis has been taken from the internet in the public domain, daily satellite data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) [8], the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) [9], the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) [10], San Francisco State University’s California Regional Weather Server (CRWS) [11], and Tropospheric Emission Monitoring Internet Service (TEMIS) [12]. Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is a contribution of the Netherlands’ Agency for Aerospace Programs (NIVR) in collaboration with the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) to the NASA EOS Aura mission [13]. General permission for use of the data has been granted by these institutions. A few of the figures were retrieved from the internet at an earlier date but are no longer readily available.  Published data sourced from peer reviewed scientific journals were also used.

The jigsaw sequence of logic and evidence requires detailed examination and close comparison of the data in order to understand the process of paramagnetic oxygen transport to high latitude ozone conversion and how that process is instrumental to global climate change.  A major obstacle to working with the published data is the diversity of presentation methods.  Mercator vs. polar geography, scale, orientation, and location make perception difficulties that cloud meteorological understanding.  The reader is urged to closely examine the location of each pattern in the process.

The process of tropospheric transport of paramagnetic oxygen toward mid-latitude conversion into stratospheric ozone accumulations within jet streams at tropopause breaks and also toward high-latitude conversion at low-altitude polar tropopauses over global magnetic maxima.

Beginning with the Global Distribution of Oxygen
Most tropospheric oxygen forms already at higher latitudes and preferentially in the northern hemisphere by chlorophyll as shown on this NASA satellite map (Fig 9):

global biosphere chlorophyll distribution
Fig 9. Global distribution of oxygen-generating chlorophyll. Color-scaled map shows that tropospheric oxygen forms primarily at higher latitudes. SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center 2000. Available.

Examining Daily Stratospheric Ozone Maps
Total ozone column maps made during equinoxes (chosen for balanced comparison) show daily ozone formation at high latitudes at the end of the cold winter seasons in both the northern and the southern hemispheres. On both hemispheres the equatorial bands at equinox have the least ozone formation in spite of their maximum solar radiation. Contrary to the Brewer and Dobson solution, these modern maps do not exhibit signs of poleward migration of stratospheric ozone from the equator. The southern hemisphere ozone (Fig 10) is formed in a band from 30 to 60 degrees south latitude. The northern hemisphere ozone (Fig 11) is formed in a band from 30 to 90 degrees north latitude. The major ozone accumulations were converted from cold, dense paramagnetic oxygen in winter and early spring over global magnetic intensity maxima (Figs 4 & 5).

Global ozone map 2014
Fig 10. KNMI-TEMIS/NASA-OMI total ozone map September 23, 2014. Global ozone map shows minimal ozone along the equator during the equinox when solar UV radiation is most intense, but maximum ozone at the South Magnetic Pole (Fig 5). Retrieved 2015, available. URL:
global ozone map 2015
Fig 11. KNMI-TEMIS/NASA-OMI total ozone map March 25, 2015 Global ozone map shows minimal equatorial ozone during equinox when solar UV is at maximum, but maximum ozone lies over magnetic highs in Canada and Siberia (Fig 5) where cold paramagnetic oxygen has collected during the previous winter. Available URL:

Tracking the Wandering Magnetic Poles
The South Magnetic Dip Pole (Figs 8 & 12) with its singular high magnetic intensity field (Fig 5) was located in 2015 at an unusually eccentric position near 64.26 degrees south latitude and 136.59 degrees east longitude [14], coincident with the southern edge of the dynamic polar vortex weather system (Fig 12a&b).

south magnetic pole movement chart
Fig 12. South Magnetic Pole movement map 1590-2010. Current location of South Magnetic Dip Pole is 64.26 degrees S and 136.59 degrees E [14]. Wandering pole location data produced by UFM and IGRF-10 magnetic field models, plus historical data, produced by NOAA’s National Geophysical Data Center, December 2005. [Available 2015, but file might be contaminated.] URL

Compare the present location of the South Magnetic Pole to this total ozone map (Fig 12a) showing the ozone hole and the ozone croissant.  Note how the maximum sea ice map (Fig 12b) fits the frigid ozone hole.  They all are aligned at the latitude of the South Magnetic Pole.  Yet ozone is diamagnetic.  A paradox?  Or is ozone a tracer of a natural process in oxygen?

Fig 12a.  This false-color image shows ozone concentrations above Antarctica on October 2, 2015.  Credits: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.


Fig 12b.  Maximum Antarctic sea ice October 6, 2015, NASA.

The North Magnetic Dip Pole (Fig 13) has wandered to a 2015 position near 86.27 degrees north latitude and 159.18 degrees west longitude [14], close to the North Pole axis of rotation. The northern polar area has a warmer Arctic Ocean surrounded by colder land masses and lacks the strong polar vortex of weather like that around the southern pole which has a cold Antarctic mass surrounded by warmer oceans.

chart north magnetic pole movement 1900-2015
Fig 13. North Magnetic Pole movement map 1900-2015. **Magnetic pole movement has accelerated since 1995** when it moved off the Canadian continental shelf. At 86.27 degrees N and 159.18 degrees W it is almost aligned with the North Pole. World Data Center for Geomagnetism, Kyoto [15], Magnetic North, Geomagnetic and Magnetic Poles 2015. Available. URL

The northern hemisphere exhibits an unusual magnetic force field (Fig 14):

north magnetic pole force field
Fig 14. Magnetic force field of the North Magnetic Pole.

This illustration of magnetic lines of force coincides with the two Mercator-mapped areas of high total intensity in Canada and Siberia (Fig 5).  Maus S 2009, Dataset Visualization Developer, NOAA/National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC). Available.

On an OMI total ozone map made during the 2012 equinox period (Fig 15), a major stratospheric ozone accumulation lay directly over the northern magnetic force field (Fig 14). Yet ozone is diamagnetic.  Paramagnetic oxygen may be the solution to the paradox.

omi total ozone 2012 chart nasa
Fig 15. KNMI-OMI/NASA total ozone map, Dobson units, March 26, 2012. Maximum ozone accumulation lies over the northern magnetic force field (Fig 14), yet ozone is not magnetic. Retrieved 2014. Currently unavailable URL:

Read more in Chapter 4…



7 thoughts on “Chapter 3

  1. Hi Harry,
    I’m thinking that a strong magnetic field would transport
    more paramagnetic oxygen, resulting in greater ozone
    production, resulting in more infrared warming of ozone.

    A weak magnetic field would result in less transport, less
    ozone and less warming. Is this in agreement with what
    you are saying? Thanks Harry.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Hi, TLMango,
      Thanks for thinking about this paper and replying. You have a good question. I had not considered a variable magnetic field, either in time or space. The force field lines get closer poleward and stronger, thus accentuating the oxygen susceptibility as it grows colder. I guess it increases the heat of conversion.

      Good observation. Thank you.


  2. TLMango, the actual volume of the ozone is very small compared to the CO2 component of global warming. I used ozone as a tracer to chase out the role of oxygen. Once again, thank you for being interested in this possibility.


  3. Harry,
    My area of interest is normally in celestial mechanics.
    But I’ve been looking for the connection that ties magnetic field
    strength and the global electric circuit to the sudden release of
    the earth’s stored up heat. In other words, the cause for the transition
    into an ice age cycle.
    Paramagnetic oxygen transport is related to both the electric circuit and
    the magnetic field. I feel I’m getting closer to the answer.
    If your interested in a celestial mechanic’s point of view, my work is
    posted at
    Thanks Harry

    Liked by 1 person

  4. Tom Mango, thanks for the link. The mathematical celestial approach is interesting. Currently I am working from a geological perspective on a new ice cycle. Check out my work in a couple of weeks.


    1. Kari, I don’t understand your question. Please define your “flat earth perspective”, and I will work with you. If you’re are hinting that I am a nut case, go ahead and be more direct. I am an ordinary retired exploration geologist, and my work is supported by an ordinary scientific method. It’s just that nobody has observed the possibility that atmospheric oxygen could be influenced by Earth’s magnetism. I think I have made a good case for that probability.


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