Chapter 4

Satellite Maps of Microwave Thermal Emission from Polar Atmospheres Show High-Latitude Conversion of Oxygen into Stratospheric Ozone over Magnetic Poles

If paramagnetic oxygen migrates, then the global atmospheric nitrogen/oxygen ratio will not retain the familiar well-mixed 78/21 percentages.  Detailed study and comparison of the following three NASA map sets yields exceptional proof and understanding of the conversion of paramagnetic oxygen to stratospheric ozone at the magnetic poles.

NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology (CIT), Earth Observing System (EOS), Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) issued a series of maps derived from their data from the Aura satellite on September 21, 2005 (2005d264). “The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) experiments measure naturally-occurring microwave thermal emission from the limb (edge) of Earth’s atmosphere to remotely sense vertical profiles of atmospheric gases, temperature, pressure, and cloud ice. The overall objective of these experiments is to provide information that will help improve our understanding of Earth’s atmosphere and global change.”[16]. The following EOS Aura MLS figures were retrieved in 2014 from the NASA internet presentation, but in 2015 they were not readily available from the previous URLs. The recorded maps, however, are reliable evidence supporting the thesis of paramagnetic oxygen transport to high-latitude conversion into stratospheric ozone, and the MLS data may be obtained from NASA.

The MLS Temperature Product (Fig 16) “measures temperature – primarily – from thermal emission by oxygen, which is well mixed with a known atmospheric mixing ratio”[17], a proxy by NASA/JPL/CIT.  If the premise of a well-mixed 78/21 nitrogen/oxygen ratio is thrown out, then taking the proxy at face value, these are maps of thermal emission by oxygen.  These are maps of the oxygen accumulations predicted by the paramagnetic oxygen transport thesis.

2005, Maps of thermal emission by oxygen
Fig 16. EOS Aura MLS Temperature Product September 21, 2005. Maps of thermal emission by oxygen. The southern hemisphere (SH) exhibits an “oxygen hole” and a paramagnetic oxygen croissant aligned with the South Magnetic Pole. The northern hemisphere (NH) exhibits more of a paramagnetic oxygen pancake resting round the North Magnetic Pole. Retrieved 2014. On the currently available 2015 URL, notice that the MLS “tempearature” [sic] of oxygen is higher near the North Pole, forming a similar paramagnetic oxygen pancake. URL

The southern polar paucity of paramagnetic oxygen (Fig 16, SH) occurs because the eccentric South Magnetic Pole (Fig 12) has pulled the frigid paramagnetic oxygen away from the rotational South Pole. The northern hemisphere map (Fig 16, NH) on that same day displays an autumnal pancake of paramagnetic oxygen rotating about the almost axially centered North Magnetic Pole (Fig 13).

The MLS O3 Product ozone map (Fig 17, SH) of the southern hemisphere shows a typical vernal equinox ozone croissant aligned with the South Magnetic Pole next to the Ozone Hole and generally coincident with the paramagnetic oxygen map (Fig 16, SH).  Both south and north equatorial map rims show only faint ozone deposits where the sun was directly overhead beaming strong UV radiation. Moderate ozone concentrations are deposited radially about both south and north poles above the moderate oxygen accumulations. Maximal stratospheric ozone deposits (Fig 17) emanated from frigid September paramagnetic oxygen accumulations (Fig 16). This is strong proof of in situ high-latitude stratospheric formation of a natural gas, ozone.  Cold, dense oxygen is more important than UV radiation.

Maps of thermal emission by ozone, southern and northern hemisphere
Fig 17. EOS Aura MLS Ozone Product September 21, 2005. Maps of thermal emission by ozone. The southern hemisphere (SH) exhibits an ozone croissant aligned with the South Magnetic Pole. The northern hemisphere (NH) has a weak ozone pancake over the North Magnetic Pole. Both hemispheres show very little ozone at the equator during this equinox. Retrieved 2014. Not readily available. URL

The MLS N2O Product nitrous oxide map (Fig 18, SH) shows that the “Ozone Hole” is filled with “laughing gas”. A strong accumulation of non-magnetic, ozone-destroying, oxygen-bonding nitrous oxide occurs within the frigid southern hemispheric Ozone Hole which already has been stripped of most of its paramagnetic oxygen by the South Magnetic Pole. Outside the hole is a rim of low nitrous oxide where the ozone croissant emanated from the oxygen doughnut, overpowering the depletion process. The northern hemisphere (Fig 18, NH) displays a broad nitrous oxide minimum coincident with the magnetic pole’s high accumulation of paramagnetic oxygen. This is not a well-mixed 78/21 ratio of nitrogen and oxygen, strongly supporting the thesis.

Maps of thermal emission by nitrous oxide
Fig 18. EOS Aura MLS Nitrous Oxide Product September 21, 2005. Maps of thermal emission by nitrous oxide. The southern hemisphere (SH) exhibits a high N2O accumulation within the Ozone Hole where paramagnetic oxygen has moved out to the latitude of the South Magnetic Pole. Beyond this is a rim of low nitrous oxide coincident with the emanating ozone croissant. The northern hemisphere (NH) has a weak, broad nitrous oxide minimum on the North Pole where the paramagnetc oxygen maximum has accumulated around the nearby North Magnetic Pole. Retrieved 2014. Not readily available. URL

The winter temperature at the South Pole falls below -78 degrees C., allowing CFCs to form chlorine monoxide (ClO) on the surfaces of Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) [23]. Sunlight causes the ClO to destroy any ozone remaining at the frigid pole (Fig 18a & b).


Fig 18a.  Column abundances of ClO and O3 above Antarctica on September 21, 1991, by NASA JPL MLS.      URL

Fig 18b.   South Pole ozone profiles before and during an ozone hole. Tropopause altitude is about 9 km.  NOAA data 1999.


Fig 18c.   Southern hemisphere daily minimum temperatures, NOAA 2001.

Analyzing a Global Cross Section of the Tropopause

The tropopause is the coldest layer of the lower atmosphere (Fig 19), and it generates stratospheric ozone by the Chapman Cycle [2] globally. All weather occurs below the tropopause and is affected by Coriolis forces, circulation cells, and Rossby waves. The stratosphere above the tropopause is dry, stratified, and relatively still except for rising ozone warmed by solar ultraviolet radiation and exothermic ozone/oxygen conversion.  The disputed twentieth century Brewer-Dobson theory ascribes the majority of ozone conversion to the equatorial tropopause at maximum solar ultraviolet radiation (Fig 1).  Slow migration within the stratosphere was modeled by Brewer and Dobson to take the ozone to high latitude accumulations.  Tropopause oxygen/ozone conversion (Fig 20) occurs at the top of the equatorial Hadley Cell at around 16 km. altitude, 100 hPa pressure, and -72 degrees C. temperature (Fig 21).  Conversion at the top of the Polar Cell occurs at around 9 km. altitude, 300 hPa pressure, and -54 degrees temperature (Fig 21).

Thermal structure of the atmosphere
Fig 19. Thermal structure of the atmosphere. Idealized illustration of the atmospheric layers. The tropopause is the coldest layer of the lower half. Taken from Lutgens and Tarbuck’s The Atmosphere, 2001, 8th edition, page 20, figure 1-19. URL



Idealized cross section of the atmospheric cells.
Fig 20. Idealized cross section of the atmospheric cells. Hemispheric section illustrates the tropopause (upper surface of the red line), the interaction of the warm Ferrel Cell with the cold Polar Cell, and the creation of polar jet streams. From NOAA, National Weather Service, JetStream-Online School for Weather, The Jet Stream 2011. Available. URL

The equatorial tropopause is bounded both north and south by structural breaks accompanied by jet stream activity. The breaks are similar to fault zones in geologic strata. The tropopause breaks occur at the interaction between Ferrel Cells and Polar Cells (Figs 20 & 21). The air pressure and the density of paramagnetic oxygen at the Polar Cell tropopause is about three times that at the Equatorial/Ferrel Cell tropopause (Fig 21). The following cross section (Fig 21) of CALIPSO 532 nm LIDAR flightline data recorded along the east coast of Asia on March 13, 2007, displays the tropopause breaks and their accompanying jet streams’ wind speeds [18]. The location map is in the upper lefthand corner of the cross section.  The flightline crosses both northern and southern tropopause breaks where polarized paramagnetic oxygen moves toward the poles into the Venturi effect of the jet streams. The exothermic ozone/oxygen conversion heat at the tropopause break energizes the jet streams, increasing their velocities in a direction perpendicular to and away from the cross section.

LIDAR flightline displaying tropopause breaks and jet stream velocities
Fig 21. CALIPSO 532 nm LIDAR flightline displaying tropopause breaks and jet stream velocities, north to south March 13, 2007, east of Asia. Location map (red line) is in the upper lefthand corner of the flightline cross section. The white line on the cross section locates the tropopause separating the troposphere from the stratosphere. Retrieved 2014. Available. URL URL

The daily KNMI-NASA-OMI total ozone map (Fig 22) on March 13, 2007, the date of the LIDAR flightline, shows springtime ozone accumulating above the northern magnetic force field coincident with the northern hemisphere polar cell on the left end (Fig 21) of the CALIPSO cross section east of Asia. The global map also shows mid-latitude ozone generation in additional jet stream bands accompanying loops of Rossby waves spiraling around the North Pole. The southern hemisphere displays off-season lesser accumulations of ozone which fit the tropopause break and polar cell on the right end (Fig 21) of the cross section north of Antarctica.

total ozone map 2007, showing major seasonal ozone accumulations over the magnetic highs of Canada and Siberia
Fig 22. Daily KNMI-TEMIS/NASA-OMI total ozone map on March 13, 2007. Showing major seasonal ozone accumulations over the magnetic highs of Canada and Siberia plus minor off-season deposits along the magnetic maximum north of Antarctica, as well as within loops of Rossby waves spiraling around North Pole . URL

Read more in Chapter 5…


3 thoughts on “Chapter 4

  1. Mark, thanks for reading the paper and thinking about possible variations. Ken’s work with magnetism is outside the confines of my paper, however, and I don’t wish to confuse my readers. I pursued my theory using standard scientific principles. It’s really a simple premise.


    1. I think you are spot on. Have you heard of David Allen LaPoint? You can find some very interesting videos he posted on youtube about ‘primer fields’.

      I think magnetism is completely misunderstood by mainstream science. I have observed many geometric shapes (mainly hexagonal) I nature. These I think are controlled by magnetism. When matter aligns it does so using 60 and 120degree angles. These atoms are magnetic in most cases. See to see the links I am trying to make. I talk about the ozone hole too. This link was from my mobile. Keep up with your work you are truly on to the facts of what controle matter (magnetism)


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