Chapter 5

Tibetan Plateau Ground-based  Observations of Mid-latitude Tropopause Folds Provide Detailed Evidence of Jet Stream Acceleration by Exothermic Oxygen/Ozone Conversion

These detailed ground-based cross sections (Fig 23) provide excellent evidence of ozone converting locally [21] from paramagnetic oxygen at mid-latitudes within tropopause folds.  Paramagnetic oxygen in the warm Ferrel Cell on the southern, right side of a cross section meets the cold Polar Cell on the northern, left side, converting to stratospheric ozone (blue color).  The tropopause is at the base of the solid blue on the cross sections.  The high-angle tropopause boundary within the fold is the locus of an exothermic oxygen /ozone conversion reaction accelerating a jet stream which flows away perpendicular to the cross section (cyan contours).

tropopause folds over Tibetan Plateau
Fig 23. N-S cross section taken from a folded tropopause over the Tibetan Plateau by ground-based observers 2/25-28/2008 [22]. This “Figure 3” is from a paper by Chen X, Añel JA, Su Z, de la Torre L, Kelder H, van Peet J, et al (2013) The Deep Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Its Significance to the Stratosphere and Troposphere Exchange over the Tibetan Plateau. Available, PLOS ONE 8(2):e56909. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056909

The solid colors are ozone percentages. Red lines are temperature. The cyan lines are velocity contours of a jet stream perpendicular to and away from the plane of the cross section at the near vertical interface of the warm Ferrel Cell with the cold Polar Cell where the oxygen/ozone conversion heat has energized it.

This is important published evidence of an unrecognized process of mid-latitude, in situ tropopause conversion of paramagnetic oxygen into stratospheric ozone. It calls for re-investigation of the roles of ozone, jet streams, and Rossby waves.

An example of off-season northern hemisphere oxygen/ozone conversion is this set of ozone and jet stream maps from June 25, 2017.  Study the area near Chicago, IL, USA.


Fig 23a.   Set of ozone and jet stream maps from June 25, 2017.  This is summer in the northern hemisphere.  A high velocity jet stream is occurring near Chicago, accelerated by a cool front depositing ozone.


Linking Mid-latitude Ozone Deposits to High Velocity Jet Streams and Rossby Wave Loops

Four times daily, San Francisco State University’s California Regional Weather Server (CRWS) issues a set of Jet Stream Analyses [19]. Detailed comparison of the jet stream maps to the ozone map each day (Figs 24 & 25) shows that the ozone deposits are intimately related to the jet streams and to the magnetic areas (Fig 5). The following CRWS jet stream analysis map of the southern hemisphere during equinox (Fig 24) on September 22, 2014, shows jet streams spiraling clockwise toward the extremely cold South Pole.  Ozone is being converted from paramagnetic oxygen near the jet streams in a band between 30 and 60 degrees south latitude (Fig 25). Higher jet stream velocity occurs near ozone/oxygen conversion, exhibiting the effect of the exothermic reaction. The Rossby waves are attenuated near the latitude of the polar vortex along the edge of Antarctica. Frigid paramagnetic oxygen is attracted outward from Antarctica to the latitude of the eccentric South Magnetic Pole, leaving an oxygen/ozone hole at the axial South Pole subject to chemical attack.

Southern hemisphere jet stream analysis 2014
Fig 24. Southern hemisphere jet stream analysis by CRWS on September 22, 2014. Jet streams spiral clockwise toward the South Pole but rarely extend over frigid Antarctica beyond the latitude of the South Magnetic Pole. Faster velocities occur near ozone deposits. Available URL:
total ozone map 2014, ozone deposit strongly associate with south magnetic pole
Fig 25. Daily KNMI-TEMIS/NASA-OMI total ozone map, September 22, 2014. Strong ozone deposit is associated with the South Magnetic Pole. Other ozone accumulations lie between 30 and 60 degrees south latitude. Prominent ozone hole lies inside 64 degrees south latitude of the South Magnetic Pole. Available. URL:

In the northern hemisphere the jet streams (Fig 26) spiral counterclockwise toward the North Pole and its nearby North Magnetic Pole. Ozone is being converted between 30 and 90 degrees north latitude (Fig 27), twice the breadth of the southern hemisphere band (Fig 25). The North Magnetic Pole pulls paramagnetic oxygen over the Arctic Ocean. Elongated Ferrel Cell loops bring warmer air from the Bering Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean into the polar regions, melting Arctic ice.  Magnetic, cold land masses in Canada and Siberia (Fig 5) attract paramagnetic oxygen, converting it to ozone (Fig 27).

This excellent Rossby wave example (Fig 26) with recent data coverage is from February 15, 2015. The main ozone buildups were over the northern magnetic complex, but ozone also was generated along the perimeter of the Polar Cell where it interacted with the Ferrel Cell. The exothermic conversion energized the jet streams in Rossby loops and increased their velocities and exaggerated the looping. A mid-latitude ozone conversion near Japan (Fig 27) had accelerated the East Asian jet stream velocity across the northern Pacific, creating a Rossby wave loop south of the Aleutians (Fig 26). A persistent Ferrel loop lay across the southwestern United States creating devastating drought conditions. Around a perimeter ozone conversion in Labrador, a Polar Cell loop crossed New England and caused a record-breaking jet streak blizzard in Boston. The high velocity pushed a warm Ferrel Cell loop across Scandinavia almost to the North Pole in winter. As these loops pass laterally across the face of the earth, extreme weather changes occur. The northern hemisphere appears to have more of this mode of activity than does the southern hemisphere with its Rossby waves attenuated by the eccentric South Magnetic Pole. The northern hemisphere has more people to be affected by the weather changes, and the Ferrel cells pick up more industrial pollution.

northern hemisphere jet stream analysis February 15, 2015
Fig 26. CRWS northern hemisphere jet stream analysis February 15, 2015. High velocity jet streams flow out from paramagnetic oxygen/ozone conversions (Fig 27) east of Japan, south of the Aleutians, and across Labrador and Greenland. Ferrel Cell Rossby wave loops move warm air up the California coast toward Alaska and across Scandinavia toward the Arctic Ocean and the North Pole. Extreme weather includes a Boston blizzard (Fig 28) and a California drought (Fig 31). Available. URL
Ozone accumulations over magnetic intensity highs in Canada and Siberia
Fig 27. Daily KNMI-TEMIS/NASA-OMI total ozone on February 15, 2015. Ozone accumulations over magnetic intensity highs in Canada and Siberia (Fig 5). Strong peripheral ozone deposit from New England to Greenland involved in jet streams and blizzards (Figs 26 & 28). Available. URL


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