Chapter 1

Climate Change, Ozone Holes, and Magnetic Poles

“An Investigation Reexamining Brewer-Dobson Ozone Theory to Uncover the Atmospheric Role of Paramagnetic Oxygen in Recent Extreme Weather Patterns and Global Climate Change” by Harry Todd

Abstract

A previously undiscovered relationship exists between tropospheric oxygen and the wandering magnetic poles of Earth’s core.  All oxygen is paramagnetic, the colder the better.  In the southern hemisphere the Ozone Hole boundary is being held open by the eccentric South Magnetic Pole, and Antarctic sea ice  expands to match that latitude.  In spite of the curtailment of CFCs under the Montreal Protocol, the Ozone Hole has not shrunk in three decades.  In the northern hemisphere rampant carbon dioxide warming is being stirred by elongated jet stream loops melting ancient Arctic sea ice with subtropical air masses.  Comparison of daily satellite maps of total ozone to maps of jet stream velocity show a close physical relationship.  The old standard Brewer-Dobson equatorial ozone migration theory is inadequate for modeling the factors involved in actual documented stratospheric ozone generation.

A new thesis is proposed for stratospheric ozone formed in situ at higher latitudes.  It is based upon tropospheric transport of paramagnetic oxygen to a lower-altitude polar tropopause.  Data obtained from internet sources show maps of high-latitude ozone conversion associated with polar magnetic force fields and also show detailed cross sections of mid-latitude ozone conversion associated with jet streams.  Tropopause ozone conversion accelerates the jet streams and elongates the Rossby wave loops, exacerbating extreme weather patterns.  The data confirm the thesis.  The paramagnetic process responds to wandering magnetic poles, and new climate change models need to incorporate this rapidly moving global effect.  The process might even explain the cycles of Pleistocene glaciation.

Wandering magnetic poles control cold oxygen which controls ozone conversion which controls jet stream velocity which controls Rossby wave loops which control the weather.  Therefore, wandering magnetic poles control the weather!

AUTHOR’S NOTE: Carbon dioxide, methane, CFCs, HFCs, and nitrogen compounds are the main focus of international attempts to lessen the chemical effects of anthropogenic global warming caused by greenhouse gas pollution.  The efforts of the Paris Agreement are very important if we are to slow down that process.  We must recognize however, that non-anthropogenic geophysical forcing factors also are active in climate change, and that we have no control over them.  We may need to double our pollution control in order to offset the non-anthropogenic factors.  Carbon is something we CAN CONTROL.

This paper explores oxygen’s involvement in climate patterns associated with Earth’s wandering magnetic poles.  Using ozone as a tracer, it develops a new rationale for climate modeling.  The conclusions are a radical departure from currently accepted science.  This is new science.  Hopefully it is correct.  The paper is complex.  The rationale is difficult to follow, and the graphics need careful study. The presentation is best viewed on a desktop monitor.  Each chapter expands for further reading by pressing the green link.  The reader is encouraged to reply in the box below each chapter to ask questions, to make comments, or to initiate a scientific discussion about whether this is a crackpot theory.   Scientific standards have been maintained in the thesis development, but the style is casual.  It is a continuing work in progress, and random editing occurs.  The original was published by WordPress on October 28, 2015.  It has no political nor economic agenda. The paper has been professionally edited but will not be submitted to a peer-reviewed atmospheric journal.

 

Introduction, Traditional Ozone Science

Why would we need yet another ozone paper? Are not the industrialized nations responsible for the chemical degradation of the atmosphere and the rapidly warming global climate? Have we not determined the processes and merely need to control our excesses?  But why has the Ozone Hole not repaired itself after we eliminated hair spray?  And why is the northern hemisphere experiencing such extreme weather patterns?

For traditional background information, a thorough secondary source of stratospheric ozone theory is available on the internet at The Stratospheric Ozone Electronic Textbook [1], compiled by members of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch (Code 916), although paramagnetic oxygen is not addressed.

The original theory of stratospheric ozone generation was published in the Memoirs of the Royal Meteorological Society by mathematician Sydney Chapman in 1930 [2]. Chapman described the reversible conversion of oxygen into ozone by solar ultraviolet radiation, the Chapman Cycle.  In 1946 British physicists Alan Brewer and Gordon Dobson [3] devised a model of very slow, convective, stratospheric ozone transport from the equator to the poles (Fig 1), explaining why more ozone is found in polar regions than near the equator where more solar radiation occurs.

Brewer-Dobson theory of ozone circulation
Fig 1. Schematic illustration of Brewer-Dobson circulation theory.  This is a model.

With seasonally averaged ozone density by NASA, The Stratospheric Ozone Electronic Textbook, Chapter 6, Section 3, Figure 6.03. Available.
URL: http://www.ccpo.odu.edu/SEES/ozone/class/Chap_6/6_Js/6-03.jpg

This is NOT how it works.

 

Seventeen years after the Ozone Hole was discovered, NASA Science News reported “Peering into the Ozone Hole” (Fig 2) asking a serious question [5]: “Image of the record-size ozone hole taken by NASA satellites on September 9, 2000. Blue denotes low ozone concentrations and yellow and red denote higher levels of ozone. Notice the ‘croissant’ of high ozone concentrations formed when the Antarctic vortex blocks the southerly migration of ozone formed in the tropics . . . Why are we seeing the worst-ever ozone hole when 13 years of regulation are finally bringing CFC levels under control? . . . Most stratospheric ozone is created in the tropics, because the intensity of the solar radiation that causes formation of ozone is higher nearer the equator. The ozone is then transported by stratospheric air currents to the Arctic and to Antarctica.”  (Italics added.)

ozone hole 2000 ozone croissant
Fig 2. Record ozone hole taken by NASA satellite on September 9, 2000

After 13 years of regulation by the Montreal Protocol, the ozone minimum was larger than ever. NASA still is using Brewer-Dobson theories for ozone modeling. “Ozone Croissant” label was added to the published satellite map. Available.

URL http://science1.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2000/ast02oct_1/

The influence of traditional Brewer-Dobson theories prevails in that 2000 NASA report and in scientific practice today [1]. Repeating NASA’s question, “Why are we seeing the worst-ever ozone hole when 13 years of regulation are finally bringing CFC levels under control?” Is that question a problem?  It is applicable to 2015 data displaying a similar sized ozone hole.  Could the answer merely be a delay in the results of our remedial efforts?  Or are we overlooking a significant factor?

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Chapter 4

Satellite Maps of Microwave Thermal Emission from Polar Atmospheres Show High-Latitude Conversion of Oxygen into Stratospheric Ozone over Magnetic Poles

If paramagnetic oxygen migrates, then the global atmospheric nitrogen/oxygen ratio will not retain the familiar well-mixed 78/21 percentages.  Detailed study and comparison of the following three NASA map sets yields exceptional proof and understanding of the conversion of paramagnetic oxygen to stratospheric ozone at the magnetic poles.

NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology (CIT), Earth Observing System (EOS), Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) issued a series of maps derived from their data from the Aura satellite on September 21, 2005 (2005d264). “The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) experiments measure naturally-occurring microwave thermal emission from the limb (edge) of Earth’s atmosphere to remotely sense vertical profiles of atmospheric gases, temperature, pressure, and cloud ice. The overall objective of these experiments is to provide information that will help improve our understanding of Earth’s atmosphere and global change.”[16]. The following EOS Aura MLS figures were retrieved in 2014 from the NASA internet presentation, but in 2015 they were not readily available from the previous URLs. The recorded maps, however, are reliable evidence supporting the thesis of paramagnetic oxygen transport to high-latitude conversion into stratospheric ozone, and the MLS data may be obtained from NASA.

The MLS Temperature Product (Fig 16) “measures temperature – primarily – from thermal emission by oxygen, which is well mixed with a known atmospheric mixing ratio”[17], a proxy by NASA/JPL/CIT.  If the premise of a well-mixed 78/21 nitrogen/oxygen ratio is thrown out, then taking the proxy at face value, these are maps of thermal emission by oxygen.  These are maps of the oxygen accumulations predicted by the paramagnetic oxygen transport thesis.

Continue reading “Chapter 4”

Chapter 6

Relating Extreme Weather to Wandering Magnetic Poles

Responding to wandering magnetic poles, these stratospheric events (Figs 26 & 27) affect the troposphere in which human lives encounter extreme weather. Compare these satellite maps to human activity on one of those extreme days, February 15, 2015, illustrating how intimately related are humans and the stratosphere (Figs 28, 29, 30 & 31).

boston blizzard news article 2015 reuters
Fig 28. Photograph from the snowiest month in Boston’s history. Boston, MA, February 15, 2015, credit Reuters/Brian Snyder.

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Chapter 7

Results

Why is more ozone found in polar regions than near the equator where more solar radiation occurs? Reexamination of the Brewer-Dobson solution (Fig 1) to that question has resulted in a differing conclusion:

  • Brewer-Dobson equatorial ozone generation and slow stratospheric transport does not explain the complexities shown by actual satellite mapping.
  • Thesis investigation uncovered a previously unrecognized climate forcing factor, paramagnetic oxygen, in a natural geophysical/atmospheric interaction.
  • The Paramagnetic Oxygen Transport Thesis outlined the process by using ozone as a tracer.  The thesis explained a global relationship between oxygen, ozone, and magnetic poles.
  • In cold weather, oxygen migrates toward Earth’s magnetic poles and gains paramagnetic susceptibility as the temperature decreases.
  • At mid-latitude tropopause folds and breaks, tropospheric oxygen converts to stratospheric ozone associated with jet streams.  The exothermic conversion energizes the jet stream, increasing its velocity and forcing Rossby wave loops to meander widely.  In the northern hemisphere the loops extend from 30 to 90 degrees latitude, causing extreme weather events and pulling warm air across Arctic sea ice.
  • At high latitudes, paramagnetic oxygen is attracted to magnetic force fields between Antarctica and Australia and between Canada and Siberia.  In the southern hemisphere the eccentric South Magnetic Pole attracts paramagnetic oxygen away from the rotational South Pole leaving an Oxygen Hole.  CFCs collect on nacreous Polar Stratospheric Clouds and strip any remaining ozone.  The resulting Ozone Hole is frigid and expands the Antarctic sea ice out to the latitude of the South Magnetic Pole.
  • The original Ozone Hole was discovered in 1983, the year that the wandering South Magnetic Pole moved off the Antarctic continental shelf.  The pole continues moving northwestward at 10-15 km. per year.  The North Magnetic Pole lies close to the rotational North Pole but it is wandering toward Siberia at 55-60 km. per year.  This rapid movement started two decades ago when the magnetic pole wandered off the Canadian continental shelf.  It coincides with extreme weather in the northern hemisphere.
  • All this interlocking evidence offers compelling proof that the Paramagnetic Oxygen Transport Thesis explains the process involved in a previously undiscovered geophysical forcing factor in global climate change.  Earth’s wandering magnetic poles force global climate change.
  • If the North Magnetic Pole continues wandering fairly rapidly into Siberia, it might set up a northern ozone hole by attenuating the Rossby waves over the continental land masses rimming the Arctic Ocean.  This might initiate another glacial episode of the Pleistocene variety.  Paramagnetic oxygen and wandering magnetic poles could be the periodic mechanism that has driven the ice ages.

  • Indeed, the five major glaciations on Earth have occurred since the Great Oxygenation Event 2.3 billion years ago.  The Huronian snow ball lasted from 2400 mya until 2100 mya.  The Cryogenian deep freeze was 850 mya to 635 mya.  Pangea was engulfed in ice during the Andean-Saharan 450 mya to 420 mya.  Major glaciation occurred during the Karoo 360 mya until 260 mya.  And finally our current Quaternary glaciation began a brief 2.58 mya.  Paramagnetic oxygen has been influenced by wandering magnetic poles for 2300 million years.  The recent melting may be the climax of an interglacial period and the resumption of the Ice Age.

Magnetic poles control cold oxygen which controls ozone conversion which controls jet stream velocity which controls Rossby wave loops which control the weather.  Therefore, magnetic poles control the weather.

Wandering magnetic poles control global climate change.

Continue reading “Chapter 7”