Chapter 4

Satellite Maps of Microwave Thermal Emission from Polar Atmospheres Show High-Latitude Conversion of Oxygen into Stratospheric Ozone over Magnetic Poles

If paramagnetic oxygen migrates, then the global atmospheric nitrogen/oxygen ratio will not retain the familiar well-mixed 78/21 percentages.  Detailed study and comparison of the following three NASA map sets yields exceptional proof and understanding of the conversion of paramagnetic oxygen to stratospheric ozone at the magnetic poles.

NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology (CIT), Earth Observing System (EOS), Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) issued a series of maps derived from their data from the Aura satellite on September 21, 2005 (2005d264). “The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) experiments measure naturally-occurring microwave thermal emission from the limb (edge) of Earth’s atmosphere to remotely sense vertical profiles of atmospheric gases, temperature, pressure, and cloud ice. The overall objective of these experiments is to provide information that will help improve our understanding of Earth’s atmosphere and global change.”[16]. The following EOS Aura MLS figures were retrieved in 2014 from the NASA internet presentation, but in 2015 they were not readily available from the previous URLs. The recorded maps, however, are reliable evidence supporting the thesis of paramagnetic oxygen transport to high-latitude conversion into stratospheric ozone, and the MLS data may be obtained from NASA.

The MLS Temperature Product (Fig 16) “measures temperature – primarily – from thermal emission by oxygen, which is well mixed with a known atmospheric mixing ratio”[17], a proxy by NASA/JPL/CIT.  If the premise of a well-mixed 78/21 nitrogen/oxygen ratio is thrown out, then taking the proxy at face value, these are maps of thermal emission by oxygen.  These are maps of the oxygen accumulations predicted by the paramagnetic oxygen transport thesis.

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Chapter 5

Tibetan Plateau Ground-based  Observations of Mid-latitude Tropopause Folds Provide Detailed Evidence of Jet Stream Acceleration by Exothermic Oxygen/Ozone Conversion

These detailed ground-based cross sections (Fig 23) provide excellent evidence of ozone converting locally [21] from paramagnetic oxygen at mid-latitudes within tropopause folds.  Paramagnetic oxygen in the warm Ferrel Cell on the southern, right side of a cross section meets the cold Polar Cell on the northern, left side, converting to stratospheric ozone (blue color).  The tropopause is at the base of the solid blue on the cross sections.   The vertical tropopause boundary within the fold is the locus of an exothermic ozone /oxygen conversion reaction accelerating a jet stream which flows away perpendicular to the cross section (cyan contours).

tropopause folds over Tibetan Plateau
Fig 23. N-S cross section taken from a folded tropopause over the Tibetan Plateau by ground-based observers 2/25-28/2008 [22]. This “Figure 3” is from a paper by Chen X, Añel JA, Su Z, de la Torre L, Kelder H, van Peet J, et al (2013) The Deep Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Its Significance to the Stratosphere and Troposphere Exchange over the Tibetan Plateau. Available, PLOS ONE 8(2):e56909. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056909

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Chapter 6

Relating Extreme Weather to Wandering Magnetic Poles

Responding to wandering magnetic poles, these stratospheric events (Figs 26 & 27) affect the troposphere in which human lives encounter extreme weather. Compare these satellite maps to human activity on one of those extreme days, February 15, 2015, illustrating how intimately related are humans and the stratosphere (Figs 28, 29, 30 & 31).

boston blizzard news article 2015 reuters
Fig 28. Photograph from the snowiest month in Boston’s history. Boston, MA, February 15, 2015, credit Reuters/Brian Snyder.

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