Chapter 2

Suddenly on September 25, 2002, a broad accumulation of ozone briefly overpowered that year’s ozone hole. The press called it “a double ozone hole”, focusing upon the holes and not on the croissant. Observe the location of the ozone croissant and that of the South Magnetic Pole marked by an arrow on this daily NASA survey using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, TOMS (Fig 3):

double ozone hole
Fig 3. Double ozone hole on September 25, 2002.

NASA EP/TOMS Total Ozone map, retrieved 2015, available. Arrow symbol has been added at the location of the South Magnetic Pole.

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Chapter 3

The South Magnetic Pole wandered off the continental shelf!

Unheralded by the scientific press, the South Magnetic Pole had wandered off the Antarctic continental shelf in 1983 (Fig 8).

magnetic pole wandered off antarctic continental shelf 1983
Fig 8. Historic track of wandering South Magnetic Pole. Magnetic pole wandered off the Antarctic continental shelf in 1983 into the peripheral polar vortex of extreme weather. NOAA data. 1983 label added. Available URL

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Chapter 4

Satellite Maps of Microwave Thermal Emission from Polar Atmospheres Show High-Latitude Conversion of Oxygen into Stratospheric Ozone over Magnetic Poles

If paramagnetic oxygen migrates, then the global atmospheric nitrogen/oxygen ratio will not retain the familiar well-mixed 78/21 percentages.  Detailed study and comparison of the following three NASA map sets yields exceptional proof and understanding of the conversion of paramagnetic oxygen to stratospheric ozone at the magnetic poles.

NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology (CIT), Earth Observing System (EOS), Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) issued a series of maps derived from their data from the Aura satellite on September 21, 2005 (2005d264). “The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) experiments measure naturally-occurring microwave thermal emission from the limb (edge) of Earth’s atmosphere to remotely sense vertical profiles of atmospheric gases, temperature, pressure, and cloud ice. The overall objective of these experiments is to provide information that will help improve our understanding of Earth’s atmosphere and global change.”[16]. The following EOS Aura MLS figures were retrieved in 2014 from the NASA internet presentation, but in 2015 they were not readily available from the previous URLs. The recorded maps, however, are reliable evidence supporting the thesis of paramagnetic oxygen transport to high-latitude conversion into stratospheric ozone, and the detailed MLS data may be obtained from NASA.

The MLS Temperature Product (Fig 16) “measures temperature – primarily – from thermal emission by oxygen, which is well mixed with a known atmospheric mixing ratio”[17], a proxy by NASA/JPL/CIT.  If the premise of a well-mixed 78/21 nitrogen/oxygen ratio is thrown out, then taking the proxy at face value, these are maps of thermal emission by oxygen.  These are maps of the oxygen accumulations predicted by the paramagnetic oxygen transport thesis.

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Chapter 5

Tibetan Plateau Ground-based  Observations of Mid-latitude Tropopause Folds Provide Detailed Evidence of Jet Stream Acceleration by Exothermic Oxygen/Ozone Conversion

These detailed ground-based cross sections (Fig 23) provide excellent evidence of ozone converting locally [21] from paramagnetic oxygen at mid-latitudes within tropopause folds.  Paramagnetic oxygen in the warm Ferrel Cell on the southern, right side of a cross section meets the cold Polar Cell on the northern, left side, converting to stratospheric ozone (blue color).  The tropopause is at the base of the solid blue on the cross sections.  The high-angle tropopause boundary within the fold is the locus of an exothermic oxygen /ozone conversion reaction accelerating a jet stream which flows away perpendicular to the cross section (cyan contours).

tropopause folds over Tibetan Plateau
Fig 23. N-S cross section taken from a folded tropopause over the Tibetan Plateau by ground-based observers 2/25-28/2008 [22]. This “Figure 3” is from a paper by Chen X, Añel JA, Su Z, de la Torre L, Kelder H, van Peet J, et al (2013) The Deep Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Its Significance to the Stratosphere and Troposphere Exchange over the Tibetan Plateau. Available, PLOS ONE 8(2):e56909. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056909

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Chapter 6

Relating Extreme Weather to Wandering Magnetic Poles

Responding to wandering magnetic poles, these stratospheric events (Figs 26 & 27) affect the troposphere in which human lives encounter extreme weather. Compare these satellite maps to human activity on one of those extreme days, February 15, 2015, illustrating how intimately related are humans and the stratosphere (Figs 28, 29, 30 & 31).

boston blizzard news article 2015 reuters
Fig 28. Photograph from the snowiest month in Boston’s history. Boston, MA, February 15, 2015, credit Reuters/Brian Snyder.

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Chapter 7


Why is more ozone found in polar regions than near the equator where more solar radiation occurs? Reexamination of the Brewer-Dobson solution (Fig 1) to that question has resulted in a differing conclusion:

  • Brewer-Dobson equatorial ozone generation and slow stratospheric transport does not explain the complexities shown by actual satellite mapping.
  • Thesis investigation uncovered a previously unrecognized climate forcing factor, paramagnetic oxygen, in a natural geophysical/atmospheric interaction.
  • The Paramagnetic Oxygen Transport Thesis outlined the process by using ozone as a tracer.  The thesis explained a global relationship between oxygen, ozone, and magnetic poles.
  • In cold weather, oxygen migrates toward Earth’s magnetic poles and gains paramagnetic susceptibility as the temperature decreases.
  • At mid-latitude tropopause folds and breaks, tropospheric oxygen converts to stratospheric ozone associated with jet streams.  The exothermic conversion energizes the jet stream, increasing its velocity and forcing Rossby wave loops to meander widely.  In the northern hemisphere the loops extend from 30 to 90 degrees latitude, causing extreme weather events and pulling warm air across Arctic sea ice.
  • At high latitudes, paramagnetic oxygen is attracted to magnetic force fields between Antarctica and Australia and between Canada and Siberia.  In the southern hemisphere the eccentric South Magnetic Pole attracts paramagnetic oxygen away from the rotational South Pole leaving an Oxygen Hole.  CFCs collect on nacreous Polar Stratospheric Clouds and strip any remaining ozone.  The resulting Ozone Hole is frigid and expands the Antarctic sea ice out to the latitude of the South Magnetic Pole.
  • The original Ozone Hole was discovered in 1983, the year that the wandering South Magnetic Pole moved off the Antarctic continental shelf.  The pole continues moving northwestward at 10-15 km. per year.  The North Magnetic Pole lies close to the rotational North Pole but it is wandering toward Siberia at 55-60 km. per year.  This rapid movement started two decades ago when the magnetic pole wandered off the Canadian continental shelf.  It coincides with extreme weather in the northern hemisphere.
  • All this interlocking evidence offers compelling proof that the Paramagnetic Oxygen Transport Thesis explains the process involved in a previously undiscovered geophysical forcing factor in global climate change.  Earth’s wandering magnetic poles force global climate change.
  • If the North Magnetic Pole continues wandering fairly rapidly into Siberia, it might set up a northern ozone hole by attenuating the Rossby waves over the continental land masses rimming the Arctic Ocean.  This might initiate another glacial episode of the Pleistocene variety.  Paramagnetic oxygen and wandering magnetic poles could be the periodic mechanism that has driven the ice ages.

  • Indeed, the five major glaciations on Earth have occurred since the Great Oxygenation Event 2.3 billion years ago.  The Huronian snow ball lasted from 2400 mya until 2100 mya.  The Cryogenian deep freeze was 850 mya to 635 mya.  Pangea was engulfed in ice during the Andean-Saharan 450 mya to 420 mya.  Major glaciation occurred during the Karoo 360 mya until 260 mya.  And finally our current Quaternary glaciation began a brief 2.58 mya.  Paramagnetic oxygen has been influenced by wandering magnetic poles for 2300 million years.  The recent melting may be the climax of an interglacial period and the resumption of the Ice Age.

Magnetic poles control cold oxygen which controls ozone conversion which controls jet stream velocity which controls Rossby wave loops which control the weather.  Therefore, magnetic poles control the weather.

Wandering magnetic poles control global climate change!

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