Chapter 2

Suddenly on September 25, 2002, a broad accumulation of ozone briefly overpowered that year’s ozone hole. The press called it “a double ozone hole”, focusing upon the holes and not on the croissant. Observe the location of the ozone croissant and that of the South Magnetic Pole marked by an arrow on this daily NASA survey using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, TOMS (Fig 3):

double ozone hole
Fig 3. Double ozone hole on September 25, 2002.

NASA EP/TOMS Total Ozone map, retrieved 2015, available. Arrow symbol has been added at the location of the South Magnetic Pole.
URL http://www.theozonehole.com/images/02sep25nasa.gif

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Chapter 5

Tibetan Plateau Ground-based  Observations of Mid-latitude Tropopause Folds Provide Detailed Evidence of Jet Stream Acceleration by Exothermic Oxygen/Ozone Conversion

These detailed ground-based cross sections (Fig 23) provide excellent evidence of ozone converting locally [21] from paramagnetic oxygen at mid-latitudes within tropopause folds.  Paramagnetic oxygen in the warm Ferrel Cell on the southern, right side of a cross section meets the cold Polar Cell on the northern, left side, converting to stratospheric ozone (blue color).  The tropopause is at the base of the solid blue on the cross sections.  The high-angle tropopause boundary within the fold is the locus of an exothermic oxygen /ozone conversion reaction accelerating a jet stream which flows away perpendicular to the cross section (cyan contours).

tropopause folds over Tibetan Plateau
Fig 23. N-S cross section taken from a folded tropopause over the Tibetan Plateau by ground-based observers 2/25-28/2008 [22]. This “Figure 3” is from a paper by Chen X, Añel JA, Su Z, de la Torre L, Kelder H, van Peet J, et al (2013) The Deep Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Its Significance to the Stratosphere and Troposphere Exchange over the Tibetan Plateau. Available, PLOS ONE 8(2):e56909. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056909

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Chapter 6

Relating Extreme Weather to Wandering Magnetic Poles

Responding to wandering magnetic poles, these stratospheric events (Figs 26 & 27) affect the troposphere in which human lives encounter extreme weather. Compare these satellite maps to human activity on one of those extreme days, February 15, 2015, illustrating how intimately related are humans and the stratosphere (Figs 28, 29, 30 & 31).

boston blizzard news article 2015 reuters
Fig 28. Photograph from the snowiest month in Boston’s history. Boston, MA, February 15, 2015, credit Reuters/Brian Snyder.

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